International Journal of Transpersonal Studies


The aim of this study was to examine whether there was a difference in three types of leadership intelligence (spiritual intelligence, emotional intelligence, and rational intelligence) before and after participation in a specific leadership training course. Leadership intelligence was assessed with the aid of the Leadership Intelligence Questionnaire (LIQ; Dåderman, Ronthy, Ekegren, & Mårdberg, 2013). The study included 125 participants (M = 38 years, SD = 8), 82 of whom were women. The participants achieved significantly higher mean scores in the three types of leadership intelligence after participation in leadership training, than their mean scores before the training. This professional development program may have contributed to the increase in leaders’ mean scores in leadership intelligence, hopefully leading to a higher quality of leadership.