International Journal of Transpersonal Studies


Thirteen expatriates experienced an individual 2-3 hour psychomanteum process, including pre- and post-meditation interviews based on cultural bereavement theory, mirror gazing in a restricted sensory chamber, art work, and follow-up surveys. Repeated measures of negative affect were administered at pretest, posttest, and follow-up periods. Correlational analyses revealed significant reductions in total culture shock and mood disturbance at follow up. Extraversion, home country, and importance of religion/ spirituality were significant covariates in change on total culture shock scores at posttest. Qualitative analyses revealed four categories of effects: clarified emotional conflicts, letting go, shifted perspectives, and reviewed success factors. The psychomanteum process could be used with talk therapy techniques and support groups for expatriates to facilitate cultural adjustment and improve quality of life abroad.