Transpersonal psychology has at times employed Buddhist terminology in ways that do not
reflect distinctions that underlie these tightly defined terms. From a Buddhist perspective,
attempts to equate Buddhist terms with language from other traditions are misdirected, and
produce results that no longer represent Buddhism. For example, it is an error to translate
certain Buddhist terms as referring to a shared universal consciousness; Buddhism explicitly
rejects this idea. Nor is it appropriate to assume that the generic, cross-traditional altered
state of nondual awareness postulated in some transpersonally-related circles is in any way
related to nirvana or other advanced states described within Buddhism. Buddhist practices
are focused on the achievement of particular knowledge and capacities, not the attainment
of altered states.
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Berkhin, I., & Hartelius, G. (2011). Berkhin, I., & Hartelius, G. (2011). Why altered states are not enough: A perspective from Buddhism. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 30(1-2), 63–68.. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 30 (1). https://doi.org/10.24972/ijts.2011.30.1-2.63