International Journal of Transpersonal Studies




The deep ecology movement, which began with Arne Naess’ introduction of the term in

1972, is compared with other movements for social responsibility that developed in the

20th century. The paper discusses Naess’ cross-cultural approach to characterizing grassroots

movements via platform principles that can be supported from a diversity of cultures,

worldviews, and personal philosophies, and explains his use of “ecosophy.” The deep ecology

movement’s relationship with ecopsychology, ecocriticism, and humanistic and transpersonal

psychology is described as part of an emerging synthesis referred to as transpersonal ecosophy.

The inquiry concludes with a technical discussion of Naess’ Apron Diagram and reflections

on the future of the movement in light of widespread concerns about global warming and

destruction of cultural and biological diversity.

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