This chapter focuses on exploring various models of spiritual development. It first addresses
philosophical dilemmas underpinning the concept of spiritual development by questioning
whether these can be addressed without metaphysical assumptions embedded in religious
worldviews and thus understood in any consensual way across different historical and
cultural contexts. Traditional models of spiritual development are then reviewed, drawing
from indigenous, Eastern, and Western cultures. Integrative-philosophical and scientific
models, including those from the psychology of religion, transpersonal psychology, and
neurobiology, are then presented. The chapter concludes by noting the complexities involved
in understanding spiritual development accompanied by suggestions on future directions
for these models by highlighting their commonalities and differences and by providing some
evaluative perspectives for thinking critically about them.
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Friedman, H., Krippner, S., Riebel, L., & Johnson, C. (2010). Friedman, H., Krippner, S., Riebel, L., & Johnson, C. (2010). Transpersonal and other models of spiritual development. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 29(1), 79–94.. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 29 (1). http://dx.doi.org/https://doi.org/10.24972/ijts.2010.29.1.79