International Journal of Transpersonal Studies




Attempts to elucidate the kinds of “thing” or “things” to which the term shamanic journeying

image is referentially linked must grapple with two related questions: what is the fundamental

nature of shamanic journeying images, and how might the origin of a shamanic

journeying image be found? The first question is ontological, concerned with the nature

and essence of shamanic journeying images. In contrast, the second is epistemological and

methodolgical, concerned with how to acquire knowledge of shamanic journeying images.

We demonstrate how inductive and deductive reasoning, the private language argument,

and reification render problematic the resolution of both. Finally, we present a method to

preliminarily formulate an ontology and epistemology of shamanic journeying imagery.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.