This research adds a third model and measure of self-construal to the current psychological literature: the metapersonal self-construal. This model extends previous theory and research, which has established two self-construal orientations to date: the independent and interdependent self-construal. The research presents a series of studies investigating the theoretical and psychometric properties of the third model and measure. Study 1 produced a valid and reliable 10-item self-report scale of the metapersonal self. Study 2 determined the scale to be low in social desirability bias. Studies 3 and 4 examined the convergent and discriminant validity of the three self-construal scales. Investigations among several variables showed that three unique but related self-construal constructs exist and evidence supports the theoretical underpinnings of each construct.
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DeCicco, T. L., & Stroink, M. L. (2007). DeCicco, T. L., & Stroink, M. L. (2007). A third model of self-construal: The metapersonal self. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 26, 82-104.. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 26 (1). https://doi.org/10.24972/ijts.2007.26.1.82