Early Gnosticism is identified as a form of Weber’s inner-worldly mysticism that, following the
critique of Plotinus, entailed spiritual metapathologies of inflated grandiosity, despair, and/or
social withdrawal. These vulnerabilities re-emerge in the naturalistic psychologies of spirituality
begun by Emerson, Nietzsche, Jung, and Maslow and more implicitly within contemporary personality
and neuropsychological research on numinous/transpersonal experience. An updated
version of Gnostic dilemma and its conflicted dualism may be endemic to any would-be science
of the spiritual and to much current transpersonal psychology as well.
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Hunt, H. T. (2003). Hunt, H. T. (2003). Gnostic dilemmas in Western psychologies of spirituality. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 22(1), 27–39.. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 22 (1). https://doi.org/10.24972/ijts.2003.22.1.27