Early Gnosticism is identified as a form of Weber’s inner-worldly mysticism that, following the
critique of Plotinus, entailed spiritual metapathologies of inflated grandiosity, despair, and/or
social withdrawal. These vulnerabilities re-emerge in the naturalistic psychologies of spirituality
begun by Emerson, Nietzsche, Jung, and Maslow and more implicitly within contemporary personality
and neuropsychological research on numinous/transpersonal experience. An updated
version of Gnostic dilemma and its conflicted dualism may be endemic to any would-be science
of the spiritual and to much current transpersonal psychology as well.
Hunt, H. T. (2003). Hunt, H. T. (2003). Gnostic dilemmas in Western psychologies of spirituality. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 22(1), 27–39.. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 22 (1). Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.ciis.edu/ijts-transpersonalstudies/vol22/iss1/5