This randomized comparison study measured the impact of brief daily use of two types of kundalini yoga meditation from the Yogi Bhajan lineage on self-esteem, regulatory emotional self-efficacy, and positive and negative affect in a non-clinical sample of 46 Spanish-speaking adults residing in Spain. Results of the two meditation types—Kirtan Kriya and Internal Conflict Resolution—are compared. Results showed that both types of meditation had positive impacts on all study variables, though the degree of change and effect size depended on the type of meditation used. Results point to these relevant forms of brief daily meditation as simple and inexpensive tools to improve welfare and support positive personality development in populations without psychological pathologies.
Martinez, S. R., Dueñas, A., & Ordoñes, X. (2021). Effects of brief daily kundalini yoga meditation on self-esteem, mood and emotional self-efficacy: A randomized comparison study. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 40(1), Advance publication
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