The strategic introduction of stressors to intentionally produce targeted psychological states
has a long history among indigenous peoples. Rites of passage ceremonies commonly involve
subjecting individuals to controlled violence to attain desired transformative outcomes. In
this context, violence is held to be sacred and generative, ritually introducing distress in
the service of loosening orientation and preparing the individual for spiritual advancement
and the acquisition of a new identity. Traditional ritual initiation ceremonies are typically
tripartite and characterized by stages of Separation, Ordeal, and Return. This article suggests
that accounts of the experiences of initiates in Separation and Ordeal stages bear striking
correspondences to trauma disorder phenomena, yielding insights that may contribute to
improving the effectiveness of modern trauma interventions.
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Morrison, R. A. (2012). Morrison, R. A. (2012). Trauma and transformative passage. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 31(1), 38–46.. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 31 (1). http://dx.doi.org/https://doi.org/10.24972/ijts.2012.31.1.38