International Journal of Transpersonal Studies

Article Title

Lightly Swimming




Essays on consciousness and the contents of consciousness are generally written in conventional

prose. Academics and scholars tend to write that way and in the present tense or the past tense

and sometimes in subtle mixes of tenses. Literary styles may also be appropriate to such writings

and consciousness writing (in literary fiction) seems both relevant and appropriate. The two principal

forms and techniques of consciousness writing are interior monologue and free indirect

style. Interior monologue represents the thoughts of a character as if narrated by a character as

“I.” In free indirect style the thoughts of a character are represented as reported speech in the third

person, past tense (after Lodge, 1992). An author may use one or both forms, and combinations

of the forms together with conventional styles of narration. William James’s “stream of consciousness”

is implied in this essay.

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